联合国:2020年电子政务调查(英文 364 页)

联合国:2020年电子政务调查(英文 364 页)


UNITED NATIONS

E-GOVERNMENT SURVEY 2020

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Contents

Foreword iv

Acknowledgements vi

Acronyms viii

About the Survey xix

Executive Summary xxiii

1. Global Trends in E-Government 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 E-government rankings in 2020 1

1.3 E-government development at a glance 2

1.4 The countries leading in e-government development 11

1.5 National income and e-government development 14

1.6 Progress in online services delivery 15

1.7 Trends in online transactional services 25

1.8 Summary and conclusion 33

2. Regional E-Government Development and the Performance of Country Groupings 37

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Regional EGDI rankings 37

2.3 Countries in special situations 55

2.4 Summary and conclusion 61

3. Regional Challenges and Opportunities 63

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Regional development 63

3.3 Conclusions and recommendations 80

4. Local E-Government Development in Cities and Human Settlements 87

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Local e-government 89

4.3 Smarter local government 105

4.4 Summary and conclusions 110

5. E-participation 115

5.1 Introduction 115

5.2 Major trends in e-participation as captured by the 2020 E-Government Survey 117

5.3 An analysis of e-participation: putting the trends identified from the Survey in perspective 131

5.4 Issues for the attention of policy makers 138

6. Towards Data-Centric E-Government 145

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Policy and institutional trends around government data 148

6.3 Risks, challenges and gaps in data governance 160

6.4 Towards effective data governance and data-centric e-government 165

6.5 Conclusion 173

7. Capacities for Digital Government Transformation 179

7.1 Introduction 179

7.2 A holistic approach to digital government transformation in pursuit of sustainable development 180

7.3 Conducting a situation analysis to assess digital transformation capacity gaps and opportunities

across all government levels and society 182

7.4 Envisioning how digital government transformation can facilitate progress towards the Sustainable

Development Goals 186

7.5 Developing a strategy and road map for digital government transformation and

capacity development 186

7.6 Capacities for continuous monitoring, evaluation and improvement 208

7.7 Conclusions 209

8. Addendum - E-Government during the COVID-19 pandemic: Policy insights and the way forward 215

8.1 Sharing information 215

8.2 Regional cooperation 217

8.3 Local e-government response 219

8.4 Engaging with people and vulnerable groups 221

8.5 Data and the use of new technologies 222

8.6 Establishing multi-stakeholder partnerships 224

8.7 The way forward 225

Annexes 231

A.1. E-Government Development Index: An Overview 231

A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) 232

A.3. Human Capital Index (HCI) 235

A.4. Online Service Index (OSI) 236

A.5. List of Features Assessed 237

A.6. Challenges in reviewing the online presence of a country 240

A.7. Member State Questionnaire (MSQ) 243

A.8. E-Participation Index (EPI) 250

A.9. Local Online Service Index 251

A.10. Country Classifications and Nomenclature in the Survey 257

A.11. United Nations e-government knowledge base 257

A.12. Addendum on COVID-19: methodology note 258

A.13. Open Government Development Index (OGDI) 258

Boxes

Key messages: global e-government development xxv

Key messages: regional e-government development xxvii

Key messages: regional challenges, opportunities and initiatives xxviii

Key messages: local e-government development in cities xxix

Key Messages: E-Participation xxx

Key messages: towards data-centric e-government xxxii

Key messages: capacities for digital transformation xxxiii

Key messages: digital government and the COVID-19 pandemic xxxiv

Box 1.1 Bangladesh, Bhutan and Cambodia 22

Box 2.1 Progress in e-government development in Rwanda, Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania 45

Box 2.2 Countries progressing rapidly in the Americas: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Costa Rica 47

Box 2.3 E-government development front-runners in Asia 49

Box 2.4 China: embracing digital transformation 50

Box 2.5 Digital Transformation in Europe 52

Box 2.6 E-Government front-runners in Oceania: Australia and New Zealand 54

Box 2.7 Caribbean and Pacific small island developing States: similarities anddifferences 60

Box 3.1 Smart Africa 65

Box 3.2 Policy and Regulation Initiative for Digital Africa 65

Box 3.3 Asia-Pacific Information Superhighway 69

Box 3.4 Digital Silk Road 70

Box 3.5 SAMOA Pathway 70

Box 3.6 United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business 73

Box 3.7 Framework of the Government Electronic and Mobile Services (GEMS) Maturity Index 77

Box 3.8 Network of e-Government Leaders of Latin America and the Caribbean 80

Box 4.1 Sydney: data hub 95

Box 4.2 Dubai: Rammas chatbot 96

Box 4.3 Amman: e-tenders platform 97

Box 4.4 Casablanca: Casa Store 98

Box 4.5 New York City: ASL Direct 99

Box 4.6 Madrid: Decide Madrid 100

Box 4.7 Bogotá: Bogotá te escucha 100

Box 4.8 Boston: school bus routing optimization 106

Box 4.9 São Paulo: effective waste management 107

Box 4.10 Hangzhou: real-time traffic management 108

Box 4.11 Buenos Aires: cloud-based lighting management system 109

Box 5.1 The scope of the United Nations E-government Survey and implications for the analysis of

e-participation 117

Box 5.2 Summary of the e-participation features assessed by the 2020 E-Government Survey 118

Box 5.3 The Tawasul complaint system in Bahrain 126

Box 5.4 Participatory budgeting in the Republic of Korea: combining participatory budgeting at

different levels of government 128

Box 5.5 Decide Madrid: a multipurpose platform 130

Box 5.6 Heterogeneity of stakeholders’ motivations and commitment: e-petitions and co-creation 133

Box 5.7 The formal process for addressing e-petitions influences people’s trust in public institutions 134

Box 5.8 Two forms of accountability for public service delivery 135

Box 5.9 Evaluating e-participation initiatives 136

Box 6.1 The data-centric online-offline integration of digital government in Shanghai 157

Box 6.2 United States: Foundations for Evidence-Based Policymaking Act of 2018 159

Box 6.3 Building data capacities among government officials in Bangladesh 165

Box 6.4 Data leadership and the Government Data Strategy in Singapore 170

Box 6.5 Data and e-government integration through digital identity: delivering on the Sustainable

Development Goals in Peru 172

Box 6.6 Promoting data-centric policy experimentation and regulatory sandboxes 173

Box 7.1 Government of South Australia: Digital Strategy Toolkit 185

Box 7.2 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development: Going Digital Toolkit 189

Box 7.3 Characteristics of a strong single government website 195

Box 7.4 Republic of Korea: National Information Resources Service 196

Box 7.5 UN DESA: global initiative focused on equipping public servants with the capacities to

implement the SDGs 200

Box 7.6 Digital Kazakhstan: providing civil servants with digitalization training 201

Box 7.7 China: online services for persons with disabilities 205

Box 7.8 Singapore: Silver Infocomm Initiative 206

Box A.1. E-Participation Framework 250

Figures

Average EGDI values for countries in special situations, 2020 xxv

Regional distribution of countries by EGDI level, 2016, 2018 and 2020 xxvi

Distribution of the cities assessed based on LOSI level xxviii

Percentage of countries with evidence of online consultations held in the past 12 months,

by region, 2020 xxx

Illustrative data governance framework for e-government xxxi

Figure 1.1 Geographical distribution of the four EGDI groups, 2020 3

Figure 1.2 Number and proportion of countries within each EGDI grouping, 2018 and 2020 3

Figure 1.3 The average values for the EGDI and its component indices for 2016, 2018 and 2020 4

Figure 1.4 Movement between EGDI groups from 2018 to 2020 (Number of countries) 5

Figure 1.5 EGDI group breakdown based on rating class/quartiles 5

Figure 1.6 Member States Questionnaires: key findings for 12 leading countries* 13

Figure 1.7 EGDI rankings by income group, 2020 15

Figure 1.8 Geographical distribution of the four EGDI groups, 2020 24

Figure 1.9 Trends in online transactional services, by OSI level, 2020 26

Figure 1.10 Numbers of countries providing online services to vulnerable groups, 2016, 2018 and 2020 27

Figure 1.11 Trends in sharing public information online, 2020 28

Figure 1.12 Percentage of 193 United Nations Member States offering mobile apps or SMS for public

information updates, by sector, 2018 and 2020 29

Figure 1.13 The delivery of public information via update subscriptions and apps/SMS, by sector, 2020 29

Figure 1.14 Percentage change in fixed (wired) broadband, active mobile broadband, and mobile cellular subscriptions per 100 inhabitants, by region, 2018-2020 30

Figure 1.15 The cost of active mobile broadband subscriptions as a percentage of gross national income, by region, 2020 31

Figure 1.16 Availability of basic, advanced and very advanced features on national e-government portals, by country income level 31

Figure 1.17 Number of countries offering tools for e-procurement* 32

Figure 1.18 Number of countries publishing government vacancies online, 2018 and 2020 32

Figure 2.1 Global and regional average EGDI values, 2020 38

Figure 2.2 Global and regional distribution of 193 countries according to EGDI level, 2020 39

Figure 2.3 Composition of the standard deviation in EGDI, OSI, HCI and TII levels, 2020 39

Figure 2.4 Regional distribution of countries by EGDI level, 2016, 2018 and 2020 40

Figure 2.5 Infographic of country movement between different EGDI groups, by region, 2020 41

Figure 2.6 Percentage of countries in each region offering online services, 2020 42

Figure 2.7 Number of countries providing online services for vulnerable groups, 2016, 2018 and 2020 43

Figure 2.8 Average EGDI values for countries in special situations, 2020 56

Figure 2.9 EGDI and subindex values for countries in special situations, 2020 56

Figure 2.10 The distribution of countries in special situations among EGDI levels, 2020 57

Figure 4.1 Number and percentage of cities at each LOSI level 91

Figure 4.2 Distribution of the cities assessed based on LOSI level 91

Figure 4.3 Number of cities by LOSI levels and national income groups 92

Figure 4.4 Implementation of LOSI indicators in city e-government portals 93

Figure 4.5 Implementation of technology indicators in city portals 94

Figure 4.6 Implementation of content provision indicators in city portals 95

Figure 4.7 Implementation of service provision indicators in city portals 96

Figure 4.8 Implementation of participation and engagement indicators in city portals 98

Figure 5.1 The relationship between e-participation and other dimensions of governance 116

Figure 5.2 The e-participation spectrum based on the political dimension and level of engagement,

with examples of associated tools 116

Figure 5.3 Global distribution of the 63 countries in the very high E-Participation Index group,

by region 121

Figure 5.4 E-Participation Index distribution for the four most recent E-Government Surveys 122

Figure 5.5 E-Government Development Index and E-Participation Index values for countries in the high EGDI group in 2020 122

Figure 5.6 Number of countries offering archived online information, by sector, 2018 and 2020 123

Figure 5.7 Proportion of national portals with information on people’s right to access government

information, by region 124

Figure 5.8 Number of countries offering selected features for online interaction, by region, 2020 124

Figure 5.9 National government portals with selected feedback and reporting features,

2018 and 2020 125

Figure 5.10 Proportion of national government portals with selected feedback and reporting features, by region, 2020 125

Figure 5.11 Number of countries with evidence of online consultations held in the preceding 12 months, by sector, 2014, 2016 and 2020 128

Figure 5.12 Percentage of countries with evidence of online consultations held in the past 12 months, by region, 2020 129

Figure 5.13 Linkages between e-participation processes and formal decision-making processes:

the case of e-petitions sent to the parliament 134

Figure 5.14 From e-participation processes to accountability: the case of public services 135

Figure 6.1 The relationship between government data, open data and big data for Governments 147

Figure 6.2a Open government data (OGD): development trends 151

Figure 6.2b Open government data (OGD): development trends 152

Figure 6.2c Open government data (OGD): development trends 152

Figure 6.2d Open government data (OGD): development trends 153

Figure 6.3 Countries that allow individuals and businesses to access own data 153

Figure 6.4 The role of government data in evidence-building and policymaking 158

Figure 6.5 Regions and country groupings with cybersecurity legislation available online and/or with HTTPS extensions in place 161

Figure 6.6 Countries with privacy statements available online 162

Figure 6.7 Countries providing data dictionaries and guidance through their OGD portals 164

Figure 6.8 Illustrative data governance framework for e-government 166

Figure 7.1 A holistic approach to digital government transformation and capacity development 182

Figure 7.2 Star profiling model: assessing capacities for government transformation 183

Figure 7.3 Strengthening policy capacity, competencies and capabilities for digital government

transformation 192

Figure 7.4 The most important leadership traits of chief information officers today 197

Figure 7.5 Critical mindsets in the digital age 198

Figure 7.6. Average Human Capital Index values, by region 202

Figure 7.7 Number of countries with at least one service for vulnerable groups, by region 204

Figure 7.8 Internet penetration rates for men and women, by region or country grouping,

2019 (Percentage of male or female population) 207

Figure 7.9 Average Telecommunication Infrastructure Index values, by region 208

Figure 7.10 Percentage of individuals in each region using the Internet 208

Figure 1 Percentage of Government portals with Covid-19 information and world total confirmed

Covid-19 cases 216

Figure 2: Different levels of e-government information-sharing during COVID-19 217

Figure 3: Examples of local e-government applications in response to COVID-19 220

Figure 4: Sample of popular e-government applications used during COVID-19 223

Figure A.1. The three components of the E-Government Development Index (EGDI) 232

Figure A.2. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components 233

Figure A.3. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components 235

Tables

Nine key pillars for digital government transformation xxxii

Table 1.1. Rating class breakdowns within EGDI groups 4

Table 1.2. Country EGDI groupings and rating classes within EGDI groups (from highest to lowest) in 2020 and movement between EGDI groups between 2018 and 2020 6

Table 1.3 Leading countries in e-government development in 2020 12

Table 1.4 Country groupings by Online Services Index (OSI) level, 2020 16

Table 1.5 Convergence and divergence of OSI levels relative to EGDI levels, 2020 20

Table 1.6 TII and HCI subcomponent convergence and divergence for the very high OSI group, 2020 20

Table 1.7 TII and HCI subcomponent convergence and divergence for the high OSI group, 2020 21

Table 1.8 TII and HCI subcomponent convergence and divergence for the middle OSI group, 2020 23

Table 1.9 TII and HCI subcomponent convergence and divergence for the low OSI group, 2020 23

Table 1.10 Trends in online transactional services, 2018-2020 25

Table 1.11 Fixed (wired) broadband, active mobile broadband and mobile cellular subscriptions,

by region, 2020 30

Table 2.1 Countries in Africa with the highest EGDI values 44

Table 2.2 Countries in the Americas with the highest EGDI values 46

Table 2.3 Countries in Asia with the highest EGDI values 48

Table 2.4 E-government development in the member countries of the Cooperation Council for the

Arab States of the Gulf (GCC) 50

Table 2.5 Countries in Europe with the highest EGDI values 51

Table 2.6 Countries in Oceania listed in descending order by EGDI value 54

Table 2.7 Least developed countries with the highest EGDI values 58

Table 2.8 Landlocked developing countries with the highest EGDI values 58

Table 2.9 Small island developing States with the highest EGDI values 59

Table 4.1 LOSI and OSI levels: convergence and divergence. (Number and percentage of cities) 93

Table 4.2 Leading cities in each LOSI subgroup 101

Table 5.1 Countries grouped by E-Participation Index level 119

Table 5.2 Countries ranked highest in the 2020 E-Participation Index 120

Table 5.3 Examples of different types of e-participation on national websites 126

Table 6.1 Terminology related to government data 147

Table 6.2 The principles of effective governance for sustainable development endorsed by the

Economic and Social Council: operationalization strategies and their relevance to data

governance 149

Table 6.3 Data as a key resource for Governments: varied approaches among countries 150

Table 6.4 Different approaches to sharing, linking and exchanging data and strengthening

interoperability 156

Table 6.5 Global and regional policy initiatives relating to data governance 167

Table 6.6 Different roles and skill sets for data users in government 169

Table 7.1 Key pillars for government transformation, by digital government development category 185

Table 7.2 Key pillars of a road map for digital governance transformation and digital capacity

development 188

Table 1: Digital government policy response to COVID-19 226

Table A.1. Telecommunication infrastructure index (TII) and changes of its components (2003-2018) 234

Table A.2. Human Capital Index and changes of its components (2003-2014) 236

Annex Tables

Annex Table 1. Country Profiles 259

Annex Table 2. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) 266

Annex Table 3. Regional and Economic Groupings for E-Government Development Index (EGDI) 273

Annex Table 4. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AFRICA 274

Annex Table 5. E-Government Development Index (EGDI) by region - AMERICAS 276

Annex Table 6. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - ASIA 278

Annex Table 7. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - EUROPE 280

Annex Table 8. E-Government Development Index EGDI by region - OCEANIA 282

Annex Table 9. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Least Developed Countries(LDCs) 283

Annex Table 10. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Landlocked Developing Counties(LLDCs) 285

Annex Table 11. E-Government Development Index EGDI of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) 286

Annex Table 12. Telecommunication Infrastructure Index (TII) and its components 288

Annex Table 13. Human Capital Index (HCI) and its components 294

Annex Table 14. Local Online Service Index (LOSI) level of 100 Municipalities 308

Annex Table 15. Municipalities Grouped by Local Online Service Index (LOSI) level 310

Annex Table 16. E-Participation Index (EPI) and its utilisation by stages 311

Annex Table 17. Regional and Economic Groupings for E-Participation Index (EPI) 316

Annex Table 18. Open Government Data Index OGDI) 317


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